140. Lipids: LDL, Cardiovascular Events, & Disparities in Care with Dr. Keith Ferdinand

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CardioNerds Dr. Rick Ferraro, Director of the #CardsJC Journal Club and cardiology fellow at Johns Hopkins and Dr. Tommy Das, Program Director of the CardioNerds Academy and cardiology fellow at Cleveland Clinic join Academy fellow and episode lead Dr. Julie Power, chief fellow at the University of Minnesota to learn all about the link between LDL-C and cardiovascular events and disparities in care from Dr. Keith Ferdinand, Professor of Medicine and Chair in Preventative Cardiology at Tulane University School of Medicine. As we’ve learned in prior episodes, LDL-C plays a key role in lipid pathophysiology. But how does it lead to cardiovascular events? LDL-C directly leads to plaque expansion and deposition in the arterial intima. Increasing levels of LDL-C are directly related to worsening plaque burden, a principle exhibited powerfully by the dose-dependent nature of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with underlying mutations leading to LDL-C elevation, such as familial hypercholesterolemia. Importantly, the treatment of atherosclerosis and implementation of lipid-lowering therapies are not uniform, with significant disparities throughout the community. The message is clear: Reducing LDL-C is of paramount significance in the prevention and treatment of coronary atherosclerosis and ensuring equitable access to care is critical to addressing the societal burden of cardiovascular disease and improving the health of our communities. There is no CME associated with this episode. To get free CME from other CardioNerds episodes, please visit VCU Health here. Relevant disclosure: Dr. Ferdinand reported severing as a consultant for Medtronic, Amgen, and Novartis. Pearls • Quotables • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Lipid Series PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - LDL, Cardiovascular Events, & Disparities in Care LDL-C is a major stimulant for the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis.The lower the LDL-C level, the greater the clinical benefit in both primary and secondary ASCVD prevention.Our healthcare systems continue to have major disparities in access to quality care and it is essential to reduce barriers to cardiovascular wellness for all communities.Lowering LDL-C in individuals at high cardiovascular risk, especially in those with familial hypercholesterolemia, prevents ASCVD events. Quotables - LDL, Cardiovascular Events, & Disparities in Care “Empower patients to be partners in their care” Dr. Keith Ferdinand Show notes - LDL, Cardiovascular Events, & Disparities in Care 1. What is the link between LDL-C and cardiovascular events? LDL-C is a major stimulant for the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. The key events in the initiation of ASCVD are the retention and accumulation of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins within the arterial intima at sites with a predilection for plaque formation. As serum levels of LDL-C increase, the probability of intimal retention of LDL leading to the development of atherosclerotic plaque increases in a dose-dependent manner [4].The WOSCOPS trial demonstrated genes associated with lower LDL-C levels are also associated with a three-fold reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease per unit reduction in LDL-C [4].The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (ERFC) and Prospective Studies Collaboration reported plasma LDL-C was associated with increased risk of non-fatal MI or CHD death [4].Statins uniformly reduce atherosclerotic risk across varying levels of baseline LDL-C and are first line therapy for primary and secondary prevention of ASCVD.In high-risk individuals and secondary prevention populations, AHA/ACC guidelines recommend 50% reductions in LDL-C, regardless of baseline, to < 70 mg/dL,

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